A train from Italy with a few dozen North African immigrants crossing the border with France set off an uproar among the nations of the European Union.
In Paris, Muslim women wearing veils were arrested after a ban on burqas took effect.
Anti-immigrant populist parties continue to win votes across the Continent while their leaders intone: "Multiculturalism has failed."
On Sunday, Pope Benedict XVI urged Italy to welcome immigrants fleeing turmoil in North Africa, and more refugees crowded into rickety boats to set sail for Europe.
Europe is in the grip of an identity crisis, as many cling to what some analysts say is a myth about their nationalities. Europeans continue to believe that their countries are not nations of immigrants.