Most Christians in Western Europe today are non-practicing, but Christian identity still remains a meaningful religious, social and cultural marker, according to a new Pew Research Center survey of 15 countries in Western Europe. In addition to religious beliefs and practices, the survey explores respondents' views on immigration, national identity and pluralism, and how religion is intertwined with attitudes on these issues.
Here are 10 key findings from the new survey:
5. Christian identity in Western Europe is associated with higher levels of nationalism and negative sentiment toward immigrants and religious minorities. Across the region, Christians, church-attending or not, are more likely than religiously unaffiliated adults to say "Islam is fundamentally incompatible with our country's values and culture." In Germany, as in several other countries, overall public opinion is split on whether Islam is compatible with German values and culture, with 55% of churchgoing Christians saying Islam is incompatible with German values and culture, compared with 45% among non-practicing Christians and 32% among religiously unaffiliated adults.