In its annual report covering 2014, the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (BfV), or the German domestic Security Service, recently reported that some 600 German Islamists traveled to Iraq or Syria. At least nine jihadists from Germany committed suicide attacks. These attacks had probably been ordered by the so-called "Islamic State in Iraq and Syria" (ISIS, also known as ISIL). The first German suicide bomber was Robert Baum (Abu Uthman), a Muslim convert from the city of Solingen. He blew himself up in the Syrian Province of Homs in June 2014.
Another German convert to Islam who joined ISIS was Philip Bergner. On Facebook he put film footage of his German-Turkish friend Mustafa Kalayci, who ostentatiously showed the severed heads of Kurdish fighters. Bergner committed a suicide attack near Mosul, Iraq, in August 2014.