France paid tribute on Thursday to the journalists, police officers and shoppers at a kosher store killed two years ago by Islamist gunmen, the first of a wave of militant attacks that has left more than 230 dead and triggered a state of emergency.

On a cold day in Paris, uniformed police, ministers and the city's mayor stood in silence outside the old office of the Charlie Hebdo magazine and other sites as floral wreaths tied in blue-white-and-red ribbons were laid to mark the anniversary.

The killing spree shocked the world and preceded further attacks that did little for the declining popularity of President Francois Hollande and deepened tensions between France's secular state and its large Muslim minority.

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