Poland's lurch to the nationalist right in the first election to be influenced by Europe's refugee crisis is sending shudders of anxiety through the European Union leadership in Brussels, where officials expect a prickly relationship.

EU officials have not forgotten the first time Jaroslaw Kaczynski's conservative Law and Justice (PiS) party ran the biggest member state in central Europe in 2005-2007.

Warsaw held up ratification of the EU's Lisbon Treaty, fought for more voting power in the bloc, and obstructed the launch of partnership talks with Russia.

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