Almost 40% of the Netherlands' 475 mosques have had to deal with racist graffiti, smashed windows and other violent behaviour over the past 10 years, according to Amsterdam University researcher Ineke van der Valk.

Many Dutch mosques have recently increased security following the spate of arson attacks in Sweden and a Dutch Facebook page calling for people to do the same here.

Van der Valk says her research shows attacks on mosques have become structural and are influenced by national and international events.

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