A heretic to ultra-orthodox fundamentalists, a radical agitator to traditionalists, and "the Saladin of progressive Muslims" to liberals, Irshad Manji calls herself a "Muslim refusenik".
Her vision of pluralistic modernity earns death threats. A New York Times profile in 2003 described her as "Osama bin Laden's worst nightmare." Islamic clerics accuse her of confrontational rhetoric that is not backed by sound theological argument. Others say her depiction of Islam plays to Christian conservatives' stereotypes. But the World Economic Forum recognized her as a Young Global Leader. And she has won prestigious human rights awards.
However one characterizes this provocative voice from contemporary Islam, she challenges ways in which Muslim doctrine is interpreted.